Mediterranean diet, microbiome and weight regulation

Mediterranean diet, microbiome and weight regulation

In the DIRECT-PLUS trial (NCT03020186), we evaluated how Mediterranean diets affect the gut microbiome, and estimated its mediatory effect on cardiometabolic risk.

The green MED diet induced specific microbial changes, including enrichments in the genus Prevotella, while also promoting genetic pathways involved in the reduction of branched-chain amino acids, compounds that are well linked to insulin resistance.

Next, we examined the efficacy and safety of diet-modulated autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (aFMT) for weight regain attenuation after weight loss, in a dietary randomized controlled trial.

We were able to identify that aFMT, collected during the weight loss phase and administrated in the regain phase, might preserve weight loss and glycemic control and is associated with specific microbial signatures.


Multiple choice questions:


Q1: What dietary regimen was associated with the most beneficial response to Autologous Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (aFMT), as assessed by long-term body weight regain?


(1) Healthy dietary guidelines

(2) Mediterranean diet

(3) Green-Mediterranean diet

(4) No interaction was observed between dietary regimen and aFMT


Q2: Which microbial metabolic pathways were most strongly associated with the effects of aFMT?


(1) Microbial fermentation

(2) Microbial sugar transport pathways

(3) Anaerobic Respiration

(4) Nitrogen Cycle-associated pathways


Q3: In mice undergoing weight loss/weight gain cycles, what phase was the major determinant and what phase was most affected by Mankai supplementation?


(1) Mankai during weight-loss affecting the weight regain phase

(2) Mankai during weight gain affecting the weight-loss phase

(3) Mankai during weight regain affecting the weight-loss phase

(4) Mankai during weight-loss affecting the weight-loss phase


Q4: Which cardiometabolic markers were due to beneficial, significant, aFMT-dietary interaction?


(1) Body weight

(2) Body weight and serum triglycerides

(3) Body weight, waist circumference and fasting plasma insulin

(4) No significant interaction was found between aFMT and diet for the studied biomarkers